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classification of dosage forms based on route of administration

Dosage forms can also be grouped based on their physical form. A transdermal delivery patch typically consists of a drug incorporated into a reservoir, a protective backing layer, a rate-limiting release membrane, and an adhesive layer to secure the patch to the skin. Suspensions are useful to administer insoluble or poorly soluble drugs or when the presence of a finely divided form of the material in the GI tract is required. Hand spraying generally results in uneven coverage of animals and is considered an inefficient method of application. The dosage form should be free from an interaction between components, with packaging materials and environmental factors (heat, humidity, oxygen, light). Inert gases are used to displace the air in solutions and enhance product integrity of oxygen-sensitive drugs. and buc. The Pharma Education Network is an interactive platform has been created with the aim to provide information and support to the pharmacy students and pharmaceutical professionals. The particle size of the active ingredient in pastes can be as large as 100 μm. Solutions 8. Sheep lousicides include synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates, and insect growth regulators. Among different choices, oral dosage forms are usually the most convenient choice. Publisher Summary This chapter focuses on the therapeutic ramifications in choosing the proper drug dosage form and explaining its routes of administration. Also available are topical delivery systems such as spot-on formulations and flea and tick collars and medallions. The three main parenteral routes of drug administration are IV, IM, and SC, and in all cases administration is usually via a hollow needle. It should be stable during storage (shelf-life) and use. A spot-on formulation is a solution of active ingredient(s) that typically contains a cosolvent and a spreading agent. The ease of injection and the availability of the drug in depot therapy are affected by the viscosity of the suspension and the particle size of the suspended drug. • Explain the uses of drugs as therapeu-tic, pharmacodynamic, Compare and contrast the advantages/disadvantages of various drug dosage forms 3. The nature of the disease or illness for which the drug substance is intended is essential in deciding which dosage forms of that drug should be prepared and marketed. The viability of organisms is additionally protected using stabilizers such as lactose or other saccharides, skim milk, and serum. This includes oral, naso-gastric, and rectal routes. These dosage forms as well as the specialized topical dosage forms and delivery systems for transdermal drug delivery and parasite control are discussed below. However, this may not be the case in species in which the emulsifying properties of skin secretions and the large numbers of follicles and glands per unit surface area must be considered (eg, cattle and sheep). the dose forms and delivery systems of the many pharmaceuticals scientists have created. Hand-jetting of long-wool sheep (wool growth >6 wk) is done to control lice, keds, mites, and sheep blowflies. The formulation also facilitates the partitioning of the drug out of the vehicle and into the skin and transport of the drug across the skin. They are administered to poultry, pigs, and ruminants. This web page has a list of dosage form terms and National Cancer Institute Thesaurus concept codes associated with those term for use in Structured Product Labeling (SPL) documents submitted to FDA. The semisolid properties are due to a polymer imparting a continuous structure to the hydrophilic liquid. Liniment. Following agents are used with the drug in the suitable dosage form. Spot-on formulations are also available to control lice in cattle. This route of administration is possible if the drug is in liquid dosage form. Chemical stripping is due to the preferential absorption of pesticide by the fleece. It should provide the anticipated therapeutic effect. To be delivered into the airways, a drug must be presented as an aerosol, either as solid particles or liquid droplets in air. The control of internal and external parasites of companion and food-producing animals has led to development of specialized dosage forms, delivery systems, and application methods unique to veterinary medicine. Cold Chain volume per dose (cm 3): 1) 20.50 cc ; 2) 54.88 cc.

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